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    L’Observatoire du milieu porté par le GIPREB (Groupement d’Intérêt Publique pour la Réhabilitation de l’Etang de Berre) a pour vocation de suivre depuis 1994 l’évolution hydrologique et biologique de l’étang de Berre (France, Méditerranée). Le suivi du benthos dans l’étang de Berre se fait depuis 2005. Il est réalisé par le GIPREB dans sa totalité. Il y a deux échelles temporelles et spatiales distinctes de suivi : 1) Les station centrales : prélèvement mensuel en 3 stations de l’étang de Berre ============================================================= *Date de début de la série : 2005 *Fréquence : Prélèvement mensuel *Coordonnés des points de Prélèvement : B3 Long : 43.3066 ; Lat : 5.0435 ; Profondeur : 5m B4 Long 43.2708 ; Lat : 5.0567 ; Profondeur : 9 m B6 Long 43.2633 ; Lat 5.0644 ; Profondeur : 9m *Protocole : Engin : Benne Orange peel de 1/12 m² Méthode : Triplicata par station et comptage/détermination des espèces présentes *Paramètres : Richesse Spécifique Densité d’individus (nombre par m²) 2) Les station côtières : prélèvement bi annuel en 10 stations de l’étang de Berre ============================================================= *Date de début de la série : 2005 *Fréquence : Prélèvement Bi annuel (Aout ou septembre et décembre ou février) *Coordonnés des points de Prélèvement : B1 Long 43.3075 Lat 5.0039 Profondeur : 4 m B2 Long 43.3027 Lat 5.0659 Profondeur : 4 m B5 Long 43.2544 Lat 5.0386 Profondeur : 4 m B7 Long 43.2562 Lat 5.1074 Profondeur : 4 m B8 Long 43.3246 Lat 5.0146 Profondeur : 4 m B9 Long 43.2746 Lat 5.0889 Profondeur : 4 m B10 Long 43.2879 Lat 5.1171 Profondeur : 4 m B11 Long 43.273 Lat 5.1105 Profondeur : 4 m B12 Long 43.244 Lat 5.0343 Profondeur : 4 m B13 Long 43.2845 Lat 5.0022 Profondeur : 4 m *Protocole : Engin : ¼ d’une benne Benne Orange peel de 1/12 m² Méthode : Triplicata par station et comptage/détermination des espèces présentes *Paramètres : Richesse Spécifique Densité d’individus (nombre par m²)

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    In the framework of the SNO/SOERE MOOSE (Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment https://www.ir-ilico.fr/Les-reseaux-elementaires/Fiches-d-identite-des-reseaux-elementaires/MOOSE ) program, the Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography is operating coastal High Frequency Surface Wave Radars (HF radar) on the North Western Mediterranean coast. This activity is also supported by the following European Research Infrastructure Jerico-Next (https://www.jerico-ri.eu), and Intereg MED programs as Impact and Sicomar +. HF radar provide high resolution (3­-5 km), synoptic view of surface currents from the shore up to 80 km off shore at hourly time scales. The measurement principle is based on the Doppler effect created by an additional current on the intrinsic speed of the waves selected by radar-sea interactions, called Bragg waves, having a wavelength of half that of the radar e.m. waves and propagating in the axis of observation (radial currents). A single radar scans the sea in azimuth and determines the radial components of the current at each adjacent cell along each azimuth. Two separate radars for the same area from different angles then collect the information necessary for mapping vector current from the combination of the two sets of radial components. The HF radar data set is made of monthly averaged surface currents, geo-referenced on cartesian lon/lat coordinates. The radial velocities maps are provided applying a Direction Finding technique (instead of traditional Beam Forming) not only to the full array of antenna but also to subarrays made of a smaller number of sequential antennas, a method which we refer to as "antenna grouping". Radials from Peyras-Peyras and Porquerolles-Benat are computed to reconstruct the vector field.

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    L’Observatoire du milieu porté par le GIPREB (Groupement d’Intérêt Publique pour la Réhabilitation de l’Etang de Berre) a pour vocation de suivre depuis 1994 l’évolution hydrologique et biologique de l’étang de Berre (France, Méditerranée). Prélèvement mensuellement en 10 stations de l’étang de Berre au fond et en surface. ================================================================= * Paramètres : Sels nutritifs (NO3, NO2, PO4) ; Ammonium (NH4) ; Ptot/Ntot ; COP/NOP (carbone et azote particulaire); Pigments (Chla/Phéo) ; MES (matières en suspension) * Date de début de la série : juin 1994 * Prélèvement : Bouteille Niskin. Opérateur : GIPREB *Analyse Opérateur : Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO UMR 7294 CNRS) - Méthode NO3, NO2, PO4 : Colorimétrie (Analyseur automatique) - Méthode NH4+ : Dosage par Fluorimétrie - Méthode Chla/Phéo : Filtration et Fluorimétrie - Méthode COP/NOP (carbone et azote organique particulaire) : Filtration et Analyseur élémentaire - Méthode MES (matiere en suspension) : Filtration et Pesée Autres données HF disponibles au point H12 : Oxygène, Salinité, Température au milieu-fond-surface depuis 2020

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    The FUMSECK (Facilities for Updating the Mediterranean Submesoscale - Ecosystem Coupling Knowledge) cruise aimed at performing technological tests of several instruments exploited for the study of the (sub)meso-scale processes and dynamics (from 0.1 to 100 km for a lifetime from several days to several weeks). Three categories of tests have been performed. The first category is the study of the MVP (Moving Vessel Profiler) tracked instruments behaviour, in particular the MSFFFII (Multi Sensor Free Fall Fish, so called "big fish"). We focused on the rotative behaviour of the big fish during its falling and raising, the connectics between the instrument and the MVP cable, between the platform and the boat depth sensor, and between the platform and the PC used to analyse the data, hence testing the whole data acquisition chain. The second category concerns the exploration of several methods to access the measurement of the current velocities vertical component, using different ADCP (Hull-mounted ADCP, Fixed-depth and profiling L-ADCP and Sentinel V (5 beams), Free-Fall ADCP), a prototype of a vertical velocity profiler, and a glider. Finally, we experimented the release of a sample of biodegradable coloured micro-particles at 15m-depth and within a 1 hectare surface, their tracking with drifting buoys, their extraction by pumping and their detection by cytometry. The goal of this experiment was its feasibility, in order to use these micro-particules as tracers for the understanding of the physical part of the ocean biological Carbon pump. Data acquired during the campain are : - Biological oceanography : * B08 Phytoplankton 7 days Continuous sampling for cytometer analysis. 15m-depth sampling for cytometer analysis (3 samples). 30.04.2019 * B90 Other biological/fisheries meas. 1 days GoPro images for the injection, the following and the sampling of coloured micro-particles. 30.04.2019 - Physical oceanography : * D05 Surface drifters/drifting buoys 3 deployments Injection, following, and sampling of coloured micro-particles at 15m-depth. Deployment and recovery of lagrangian drifters anchored at 15m for water mass following. 30.04.2019 * D71 Current profiler (eg ADCP) 7 days Continuous Vessel-Mounted ADCP. L-ADCP and Sentinel casts (5 and 6 stations). Free-Fall ADCP (6 stations). 30.04.2019 * D90 Other physical oceanographic meas. 7 days MVP (Moving Vessel Profiler) 30.04.2019 * D90 Other physical oceanographic meas. 6 stations VVP (Vertical Velocity Profiler) 30.04.2019 * H10 CTD stations 6 stations CTD casts 30.04.2019 * H71 Surface measurements underway (T,S) 7 days Continuous measurement 30.04.2019

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    In the framework of the SNO/SOERE MOOSE (Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment) program, the Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography is operating coastal High Frequency Surface Wave Radars (HF radar) on the North Western Mediterranean coast. HF radar provide high resolution (3­-5 km), synoptic view of surface currents from the shore up to 80 km off shore at hourly time scales. The measurement principle is based on the Doppler effect created by an additional current on the intrinsic speed of the waves selected by radar-sea interactions, called Bragg waves, having a wavelength of half that of the radar e.m. waves and propagating in the axis of observation (radial currents). A single radar scans the sea in azimuth and determines the radial components of the current at each adjacent cell along each azimuth. Two separate radars for the same area from different angles then collect the information necessary for mapping vector current from the combination of the two sets of radial components. The MOOSE HF radar MEDTLN data set is made of daily averaged surface currents, geo-referenced on Cartesian lon/lat coordinates. Those are computed from hourly total velocity data of level L3B (velocity threshold and GDOP threshold tests passed) for which additional RFI outliers’ eliminations are made using a one inertial period (17h at 43°N) statistical method based on the number of L3B valid data, variance and mean over the 17h period by reference to the long term (full dataset) statistics. The associated quality control (QC) indexes for the hourly data range from 0 (missing or bad values) to 4 (best confidence values). Details of the method available on the MOOSE HFradar website. Velocities, variances and QC values in this file are those averaged on a lunar daily basis (25 hours average) centered at noon of each day. Hourly data for specific studies may be available on equest (see contacts below). DOI : 10.17882/56500 Landing Page = https://doi.org/10.17882/56500

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    "Towards an integrated prediction of Land & Sea Responses to global change in the Mediterranean Basin" The LaSeR-Med project aims at investigating the effects of climate change and of mediterranean population growth on some major indicators of the Mediterranean Sea (primary production, carbon export, zooplankton biomass available for small pelagic fishes, pH, dissolved oxygen) using and integrated model encompassing a socio-economic model, a continental model of agro-ecosystems, and a physical ocean-atmosphere model coupled to a biogeochemical model of the ocean. Last, a model for the widespread species of jellyfish Pelagia Noctiluca (Berline et al., 2013) uses biogeochemical outputs as food forcing for the jellyfish. In this project, our aim was first to investigate the large-scale and long-term impacts of variations in river inputs on the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades (see Pages et al., 2020a). In the second phase, a climate scenario (RCP8.5) alone (Pages et al., 2020b) or combined with a “land-use” scenario derived to ensure the same level of food availability as today in 2050 have been run to investigate its effect on these indicators and to analyze the observed changes on the structure and the functioning of planktonic food web. This interdisciplinary project provided the framework for joint discussions on each of the sub-models that constitute the integrated model, namely the socio-economic model (Ami et al., in prep., Mardesic et al., in prep.) created ex nihilo by researchers from AMSE, INRA and GREQAM, the continental agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Bondeau et al., 2007) worked on at IMBE so as to include the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles in the frame of the present project, and the ocean biogeochemical model Eco3M-Med developed at MIO (Baklouti et al., 2006; Alekseenko et al. 2014, Guyennon et al., 2015; Pagès et al., 2020a), forced by ocean physics, either using the ocean model NEMO-Med12 forced by atmosphere at IPSL (simulation NM12-FREE run with the NEMO-MED12 model and used for our hindcast simulation, see below) or a coupled ocean-atmosphere model at CNRM (physical forcing provided by CNRM-RCSM4, see below). Details on the CNRM-RCSM4 model The CNRM-RCSM4 simulates the main components of the Mediterranean regional climate system and their interactions. It includes four different components: (i) The atmospheric regional model ALADIN-Climate (Radu et al., 2008; Colin et al., 2010; Herrmann et al., 2011) characterized by a 50 km horizontal resolution, 31 vertical levels, and a time step of 1800 s, (ii) the ISBA (Interaction between Soil Biosphere and Atmosphere) land-surface model (Noilhan and Mahfouf, 1996) at a 50 km horizontal resolution, (iii) the TRIP (Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) river routing model (Oki and Sud, 1998), used to convert the runoff simulated by ISBA into rivers (Decharme et al., 2010; Szczypta et al., 2012; Voldoire et al., 2013), and (iv) the Ocean general circulation model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean, Madec and NEMO-Team, 2016) in its NEMO-MED8 regional configuration (Beuvier et al., 2010). NEMO-MED8 is characterized by a horizontal resolution of 1/8° (grid cells size from 6 to 12 km), a vertical resolution of 43 vertical levels (cell height ranging from 6 to 200 m), and a time step of 1200 s. More details about the CNRM-RCSM4 model can be found in Sevault et al. (2014). Keywords: - Mediterranean Sea, river inputs, chlorophyll, nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria, zooplankton, dissolved and particulate organic detrital matter Citation: Pagès, R., Baklouti, M., Barrier, N., Richon, C., Dutay, J.-C., and Moutin, T. (2020a). Changes in rivers inputs during the last decades significantly impacted the biogeochemistry of the eastern Mediterranean basin: a modelling study. Prog. Oceanogr. 181:102242. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2019.102242 Pagès, R., Baklouti, M., Barrier, N., Ayache, M., Sevault, F., Somot, S. and Moutin, T. (2020b). Projected Effects of Climate-Induced Changes in Hydrodynamics on the Biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea Under the RCP 8.5 Regional Climate Scenario. Front. Mar. Sci. 7:563615. doi:10.3389/fmars.2020.563615 Ayache, M., Bondeau, A., Pagès, R., Barrier, N., Ostberg, S. and Baklouti, M. (2020). LPJmL-Med – Modelling the dynamics of the land-sea nutrient transfer over the Mediterranean region–version 1: Model description and evaluation. Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, Copernicus Publ.

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    "Towards an integrated prediction of Land & Sea Responses to global change in the Mediterranean Basin" The LaSeR-Med project aims at investigating the effects of climate change and of mediterranean population growth on some major indicators of the Mediterranean Sea (primary production, carbon export, zooplankton biomass available for small pelagic fishes, pH, dissolved oxygen) using and integrated model encompassing a socio-economic model, a continental model of agro-ecosystems, and a physical ocean-atmosphere model coupled to a biogeochemical model of the ocean. Last, a model for the widespread species of jellyfish Pelagia Noctiluca (Berline et al., 2013) uses biogeochemical outputs as food forcing for the jellyfish. In this project, our first aim was to investigate the large-scale and long-term impacts of variations in river inputs on the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades (see Pages et al., 2020a). This interdisciplinary project provided the framework for joint discussions on each of the sub-models that constitute the integrated model, namely the socio-economic model (Ami et al., in prep., Mardesic et al., in prep.) created ex nihilo by researchers from AMSE, INRA and GREQAM, the continental agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Bondeau et al., 2007) worked on at IMBE so as to include the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles in the frame of the present project, and the ocean biogeochemical model Eco3M-Med developed at MIO (Baklouti et al., 2006; Alekseenko et al. 2014, Guyennon et al., 2015; Pagès et al., 2020a), forced by ocean physics, either using the ocean model NEMO-Med12 forced by atmosphere at IPSL (simulation NM12-FREE run with the NEMO-MED12 model and used for our hindcast simulation, see below) or a coupled ocean-atmosphere model at CNRM (physical forcing provided by CNRM-RCSM4, see below). Details on simulation NM12-free: The historical simulation used in this work is referred to as the NM12-FREE (no reanalysis no data assimilation) which started in October 1979 and ended in June 2013 (Hamon et al., 2016). It has been run with the general circulation model NEMO in its regional configuration NEMO-MED12 based on a horizontal resolution of 1/12 de degree (6.5 to 8 km cells) and a 75-level vertical resolution (of 1 m width at the surface to 135 m at the seabed). For this simulation, runoff and river inputs in the NM12 domain came from the inter-annual data of Ludwig et al. (2009) and the atmospheric forcing was based on the dynamical downscaling of the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis, i.e. ALDERA which has a 12 km spatial resolution and a 3 h temporal resolution. More details on the NM12-FREE simulation are given in Hamon et al. (2016). Keywords: - Mediterranean Sea, river inputs, chlorophyll, nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria, zooplankton, dissolved and particulate organic detrital matter Citation: Pagès, R., Baklouti, M., Barrier, N., Richon, C., Dutay, J.-C., and Moutin, T. (2020a). Changes in rivers inputs during the last decades significantly impacted the biogeochemistry of the eastern Mediterranean basin: a modelling study. Prog. Oceanogr. 181:102242. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2019.102242 Ayache, M., Bondeau, A., Pagès, R., Barrier, N., Ostberg, S. and Baklouti, M. (2020). LPJmL-Med – Modelling the dynamics of the land-sea nutrient transfer over the Mediterranean region–version 1: Model description and evaluation. Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, Copernicus Publ.

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    The scientific objectives of the project MAUPITI HOE are to understand the hydrodynamics of an archetypal reef-lagoon system of a high volcanic reef island. The physical functioning of the hydrosystem involves a fine coupling between water levels, waves (including wind, infragravity and VLF waves), currents and seabed structure (reef roughness). The present data focuses on the reef barrier dynamics. Citation: - Sous D., Bouchette F., Certain R., Meulé S. (2021). Maupiti Hoe 2018 [Data set]. MIO UMR 7294 CNRS, GLADYS. https://doi.org/10.34930/9DB3BEC4-0BBF-4531-8864-F100C4B8ECED

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    Hourly High Frequency Radar (HFR) surface current data (ocean surface velocity) from 2 different stations located on the French Mediterranean coast (Toulon), processed in real time. The total velocity is then reconstructed from the filled radial velocity files, and projected onto a cartesian grid of 1km x 1km. The HFR data comes from two systems, one monostatic radar PEY (located at Fort Peyras, La Seyne sur mer), and one bistatic POB (receiver located at Cap Bénat - Bormes les Mimosas, and transmitter on Porquerolles Island). The HFR data is initially hourly sampled. The radial velocity are processed by an algorithm of Directional of Arrival Finding with a self-calibration method developed by our laboratory. HF radar sites : - Peyras : 43°03'47.4"N, 5°51'40.3"E - Porquerolles (transmitter only): 42°58'59.0"N, 6°12'15.3"E - Bénat (receiver only): 43°05'31.5"N, 6°21'26.5"E EUROPEAN DIRECTORY OF MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PROJECTS (EDMERP) : - SICOMAR PLUS(12402), IMPACT(12271), MOOSE(11574), and JERICO NEXT(12227) EQUIPEMENTS: - High Frequency Surface Wave radar WERA from HELZEL MESSTECHNIK PARAMETERS: - sea surface current Citation: - Dylan Dumas, Charles-Antoine Guerin, Self-calibration and antenna grouping for bistatic oceanographic High-Frequency Radars,2020, https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.10528

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    L’Observatoire du milieu porté par le GIPREB (Groupement d’Intérêt Publique pour la Réhabilitation de l’Etang de Berre) a pour vocation de suivre depuis 1994 l’évolution hydrologique et biologique de l’étang de Berre (France, Méditerranée). Le suivi mis en place au sein de l’Observatoire du GIPREB répond pour l’étang de Berre aux quatre grandes problématiques que sont : - le contrôle des apports par les bassins versants, - le contrôle de l’eutrophisation, - la contamination et - le niveau de réponse des biocénoses et habitats. L’étang de Berre, d’une superficie de 155 km2 et une lagune saumâtre (qualifiée d’« eaux de transitions » au titre de la directive-cadre sur l’eau) située dans les bouches du Rhône (France) . Sa profondeur moyenne est de 6,5 mètres, pouvant atteindre 9 mètres au centre de l’étang. Elle est reliée à la mer méditerranée par le chenal de Caronte au sud et reçoit l’eau des trois rivières que sont la Touloubre, l’Arc et la Durançole. Au sud l’étang de Bolmon (en communication avec l’étang de Berre) reçoit lui les eaux de la Cadière. Ses apports du bassin versant naturel sont complétés par ceux de la chaîne hydro-électrique Durance-Verdon dont les eaux douces sont rejetées sur les rivages nord de l’étang. (CF carte). La population du bassin versant naturel (1 700 km²) de l’étang de Berre s’élève à 600 000 habitants. Les vents sont caractérisés par deux secteurs dominants : N-NW (le mistral est le vent dominant et fréquent) et S-E. L’étang de Berre constitue un milieu eutrophe avec de fréquentes efflorescences algales et des phénomènes récurrents d’appauvrissement ou de disparition de l’oxygène de ses eaux. - informations sur l'étang de Berre : https://etangdeberre.org/comprendre/generalites-sur-letang-de-berre/ Bases de données mises à disposition : ============================== - Hydrologie : • Haute Fréquence en une station (H12) depuis 2020 : S, O2, Température à trois profondeurs (surface – milieu – fond) • Prélèvement mensuel en 10 stations en surface et fond depuis 1994 : O2, NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, SiOH4, Nt/Pt, COP/NOP, MES, Chla/Pheo • Profil de sonde mensuel en 10 stations depuis 1994 : S, O2, T°C - Espèces benthiques depuis 2002 : Prélèvement mensuel en 8 stations - Phytoplancton : Prélèvement mensuel en 2 stations - Macrophytes depuis 2001 : Comptage annuel des macrophytes sur 31 transects - Herbier de Zostère depuis 2004 : Cartographie annuelle de tous les herbiers dans l’étang (format .shp)