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The dataset gives the variations of several climatic variables on the 0–10,000 year BP period by increment of 100 year. The variables are reconstructed using pollen data and an inverse vegetation model (BIOME4). The variables are expressed in term of anomalies according to their present reconstructions (0–100 years BP). The resolution of 100 years is certainly not reached for all the pollen diagrams used in the reconstruction. It is rather a maximum resolution. In reality, the time-series at that time step are rather smoothed and it should be unrealistic to interpret events with a length inferior to several centuries. Details are given in Guiot, J., Kaniewski, D., 2015. The Mediterranean Basin and Southern Europe in a warmer world: what can we learn from the past ? Frontiers in Earth Science, 3, 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/feart.2015.00028'.